Research

Zingiber Officinalis


Valued in Asia for thousands of years and also in medieval Europe for its properties as a tasteful spice, Ginger in capsule form is very effective for the control of dizziness, motion sickness, nausea and vertigo.

The ginger plant has a long history of cultivation, having originated in Asia and is grown in India, Southeast Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean. Ginger is a spice which is used for cooking and is also consumed whole as a delicacy or medicine. It is the underground stem of the ginger plant, Zingiber officinale.

The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger root is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose about one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Ginger sectionGinger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) have also been identified.

The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, particularly gingerols and shogaols, which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes swallowing easier.

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Medicinal Uses


The medical form of ginger historically was called “Jamaica ginger”; it was classified as a stimulant and carminative, and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is on the FDA’s ‘generally recognized as safe’ list, though it does interact with some medications, including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as the herb promotes the release of bile from the gallbladder. Ginger may also decrease joint pain from arthritis, though studies on this have been inconsistent, and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.

Active Components


Contains 4 – 7,5% oleoresin with essential oil and sharp substances. The essential oil (1,5 – 3% of the drug) has a variable composition, according to its origin. The principal components are sesquitopens such as a-zingiberen, arcurcumene, $ -bisabolen, $ -bisabolone, (EE)-a-pharnesene and $ -sesquiphelandren, and monotherpenes like camphor, $ -phelendren, geranial, neral and linalol. The sharp substances are gingerols and sogaols. They are non volatile phenilalcanones or phenilalcanonoles with chains of a different length, being the most important ones the (6)-gingerol and the (6) sogaol. The rhizome of ginger contains also diarylheptanoids: diphenylheptenones, diphenylheptanonoles, diphenylheptanodioles and their acetates. Other components are: starch (approximately 50%), ditherpenes, 6-gingesulphonic acid and monoacyl digalactosyl glycerols.

Pharmacological Action


Mechanism of Action. Clinical studies have shown that the herbal in DizzyStop® is believed to act through a hormonal mechanism reducing the abnormal stimulation to the brain that causes the symptoms of motion sickness.
Attributed mainly to a local effect of the gingerols and sogaols on the gastrointestinal tract.

Clinical studies have shown that the oral administration of the powder of ginger roots (940 mg) was more effective than the dimenhydrinate (100 mg) for the prevention of gastrointestinal symptoms of the kinetosis (locomotional dizziness). The results of this study suggest that it does not act on the central nervous system but has a direct effect on the gastrointestinal tract, by means of its aromatic, carmine and absorbent properties, increasing the gastric mobility and absorbing toxins and acids.

In double blind clinical chance studies, the benefits of the powder of ginger roots as a prophylactic treatment of travel sickness have been proved. The results of a study show that the oral administration was statistically superior to placebo, reducing vomiting and cold sweating 4 hours after its consumption. Another study compared the effects of seven antiemetic drugs on the prevention of travel sickness in 1.489 persons. This study concluded that ginger was as effective as the other antiemetic drugs under evaluation.

At least four clinical studies have shown the benefits of ginger roots as a prophylactic treatment of nauseas and vomiting. The studies focused on the gastrointestinal action of ginger, compared with those focused on its effect on the central nervous system have given better replies related to locomotional dizziness.

In a double blind chance study there have been shown in a statistically significant form, less cases of nausea and vomiting after an operation in 60 patients who received ginger, compared with placebo. The effects of ginger on post-operation nauseas and vomiting have been reported as good as or even better than the ones of the metochlopramida.

Stimulates the gastric, saliva and bile secretion and of pancreatic lipases. Anti-ulcerous activity through inhibition of the reduction of the layer thickness of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The intraduodenal administration of ginger extracts to rats increased the bile secretion during 3 hours. This activity is caused by the (6)- and (10)-gingerols contained in the essential oil of ginger.

The oral administration of ginger extracts (75 mg/kg), (6)-shogaol (2.5 mg/kg) or (6)-, (8)- or (10)-gingerols, improved the intestinal mobility in mice, activity comparable with or slightly inferior to the one of metochlopramida (10 mg/kg) and domperidona.

The gingerols are powerful inhibitors of the metabolism of arachidonic acid by way of cycloxigenase as well as lipoxigenase. One of the mechanisms of inflammation is the increase of the oxygenation of arachidonic acid which is metabolized through the cycloxigenase and the 5-lipoxigenase, producing prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B 4, two potent mediators of inflammation. Studies in vitro have shown that ginger extracts inhibit the activities of both enzymes in the arachidonic acid, and therefore its anti-inflammatory effects may be due to the reduction of the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Ginger is also a powerful inhibitor of the thromboxane synthetase and increases the levels of prostacyclines without increasing the prostaglandins E2 or F2a. Studies in vivo have shown that the oral administration of ginger extracts decreases the edema in the pats of rats. The potency of the extracts was comparable with the acetylsalicylic acid. (6)-shogaol inhibited the edema in the pats of rats induced by carragenine inhibiting the activity of the cyclooxigenase.

A study in China reported that 113 patients with rheumatic pain and chronic lumbalgia, who were injected with an extract of 5 – 10% of ginger into the hurting sites, experienced a total or partial relieve of pain, decrease of articular inflammation and an improvement or recovery of the articular function. The oral administration of ginger powder to patients with rheumatism and other musculoskeletal alterations has shown a relieve of pain and inflammation.

Grape Seed Extract

Grape seed extracts are industrial derivatives from whole grape seeds. Typically, the commercial opportunity of extracting grape seed constituents has been for chemicals known as polyphenols, including oligomeric proanthocyanidins recognized as antioxidants. – WikiPedia

Check out the references below for more information on Ginger and Grape Seed Extract!

References

Stuart Barton MD “Dizziness in Office Practice”, October 1992

Vestibular labyrinths [the inner ear balance canals] produce a balance of meaningful impulses for the maintenance of equilibrium. The individual sense organs of the inner ear are interdependent and a disturbance in the harmonious relationship can cause vertigo. These sense organs have cells that generate electrical impulses through the balance nerve to the balance portion of the brain. Interaction with the electrical impulses from the feet and from the eyes at the level of the cerebellum [brain balance center]. Allow for smooth coordination of movement and balance. Anything that interferes with information arriving at the Cerebellum such as a pinched nerve in the back or neck, inflammation of the inner ear, or vision disturbance will lead to imbalance.

E. Ernst and M.H. Pittler. Department of Complementary Medicine, School of Postgraduate Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter EX2- 4NT, UK

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is often advocated as beneficial for nausea and vomiting. Whether the herb is truly effacious for this condition is, however, still a matter of debate. We have performed a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials for or against the efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting. Six studies met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Three on postoperative nausea and vomiting were identified and two of these sugested that ginger was superior to placebo and equally effective as metoclopramide. The pooled absolute risk reduction for the incidence of postoperative nausea, however, indicated a non-signifcant difference between the ginger and placebo groups for ginger 1 g taken before operation (absolute risk reduction 0.052 (95% confidence interval -0.082 to 0.186)). One study found for each of the following conditions: seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy-induced nausea. These studies collectively favoured ginger over placebo.
Grontved A., Hentzer E.

The effect of powdered ginger root (Zingiber officinale) upon vertigo and nystagmus following caloric stimulation of the vestibular system was studied in 8 healthy volunteers in a double-blind crossover placebo trial. The results reported are based upon 48 vertigo scores and 48 electronystagmograms. Ginger root reduced the induced vertigo significantly better than did placebo. There was no statistically significant action upon the duration or the maximum slow phase velocity of nystagmus.
Grontved A. Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Svendborg Hospital, Denmark.

In a double-blind randomized placebo trial, the effect of the powdered rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was tested on seasickness. Eighty naval cadets, unaccustomed to sailing in heavy seas reported during voyages on the high seas, symptoms of seasickness every hour for 4 consecutive hours after ingestion of 1 g of the drug or placebo. Ginger root reduced the tendency to vomiting and cold sweating significantly better than placebo did (p less than 0.05). With regard to vomiting, a modified Protection Index (PI) = 72% was calculated. Remarkably fewer symptoms of nausea and vertigo were reported after ginger root ingestion, but the difference was not statistically significant. For all symptom categories, PI = 38% was calculated.
Holtmann S, Clarke AH, Scherer H. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Grosshadern Medical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Germany.

A controlled, double-blind study was carried out to determine whether nystagmus response to optokinetic or vestibular stimuli might be altered by some agent contained in powdered ginger root (Zingiber officinale). For comparative purposes, the test subjects were examined after medication with ginger root, placebo and with dimenhydrinate. Eye movements were recorded using standard ENG equipment and evaluation was performed by automatic nystagmus analysis. It could be demonstrated that the effect of ginger root did not differ from that found at baseline, or with placebo, i.e. it had no influence on the experimentally induced nystagmus. Dimenhydrinate, on the other hand, was found to cause a reduction in the nystagmus response to caloric, rotatory and optokinetic stimuli. From the present study it can be concluded that neither the vestibular nor the oculomotor system, both of which are of decisive importance in the occurrence of motion sickness, are influenced by ginger. A CNS mechanism, which is characteristic of the conventional anti-motion sickness drugs, can thus be excluded as regards ginger root. It is more likely that any reduction of motion-sickness symptoms derives from the influence of the ginger root agents on the gastric system.
Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, McNeil J, Charlton S. Department of Anaesthesia, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London.

The effectiveness of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an antiemetic agent was compared with placebo and metoclopramide in 60 women who had major gynaecological surgery in a double-blind, randomised study. There were statistically significantly fewer recorded incidences of nausea in the group that received ginger root compared with placebo (p less than 0.05). The number of incidences of nausea in the groups that received either ginger root or metoclopramide were similar. The administration of antiemetic after operation was significantly greater in the placebo group compared to the other two groups (p less than 0.05).
Micklefield GH, Redeker Y, Meister V. Department of Internal Medicine, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Klinikum, Wuppertal, Germany.

The effect of a ginger rhizome extract (2 x 100 mg) was studied on fasting and postprandial gastroduodenal motility with stationary manometry in 12 healthy volunteers. The results showed that: the interdigestive antral motility was significantly increased by ginger during phase III of the migrating motor complex; the volunteers also had a significantly increased motor response to a test meal in the corpus; a trend to an increased motor response during ginger treatment was seen in all other regions of interest. Oral ginger improves gastroduodenal motility in the fasting state and after a standard test meal.
Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P. Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen F, DK, Denmark.


Objective: Alternative medicine is used extensively by patients with chronic pain due to e.g., osteoarthritis. Only few of these drugs have be tested in a controlled setting and the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of ginger extract, one of the most popular herbal medications.

Design: Ginger extract was compared to placebo and Ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee in a controlled, double blind, double dummy, cross-over study with a wash-out period of one week followed by three treatment periods in a randomized sequence, each of three weeks duration. Acetaminophen was used as rescue medication throughout the study. The study was conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice (European Guideline for GCP).

Results: A ranking of efficacy of the three treatment periods: Ibuprofen>ginger extract >placebo was found for visual analogue scale of pain (Friedman test: 24.65, P< 0.00001) and the Lequesne-index (Friedman test: 20.76, P< 0.00005). In the cross-over study, no significant difference between placebo and ginger extract could be demonstrated (Siegel-Castellan test), while explorative tests of differences in the first treatment period showed a better effect of both Ibuprofen and ginger extract than placebo (Chi-square, P< 0.05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the periods with active medications.

Conclusion: In the present study a statistically significant effect of ginger extract could only be demonstrated by explorative statistical methods in the first period of treatment before cross-over, while a significant difference was not observed in the study as a whole.

UMM.edu

“The medicinal and nutritional value of grapes (Vitis vinifera) has been heralded for thousands of years. Egyptians consumed this fruit at least 6,000 years ago, and several ancient Greek philosophers praised the healing power of grapes — usually in the form of wine. European folk healers developed an ointment from the sap of grapevines to cure skin and eye diseases. Grape leaves were used to stop bleeding, inflammation, and pain, such as the kind brought on by hemorrhoids. Unripe grapes were used to treat sore throats and dried grapes (raisins) were used to heal consumption, constipation, and thirst. The round, ripe, sweet grapes, were used to treat a range of health problems including cancer, cholera, smallpox, nausea, eye infections, and skin, kidney, and liver diseases.”

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Webraydian.com

“This article discusses about the uses and benefits of grape seed extract. The article explains how grape seed extract benefits us in treating cardiovascular diseases, allergies, cataracts, and providing skin care.”